How to estimate the costs of electrical construction

Electrical contractors may need to include a range of items in their construction offerings, as well as lighting and power to provide homes or commercial buildings. They may also include fire alarms, as well as more sophisticated items such as telecommunications or audio systems. Electrical contractors must be fully familiar with each site to ensure they understand all the required elements.


  1. Study the drawings that customers send you to familiarize yourself with the site. Ask questions at this early stage to save wastes of time and effort later.
  2. Revise the specifications sent by the customer. This will tell you what kind of cabling and accessories you need to buy and install. It could have a big impact on your price. You may also need to include additional items such as alarm systems.
  3. Request subcontractor prices for work that will be done by specialists, such as the intercom installation. Send these requests as soon as possible to give you time to review the price and meet the client’s deadline.
  4. Talk to your suppliers and get quotes from them for wiring and fittings. This will give you valuable data needed to calculate your price.
  5. Prepare a schedule of materials needed to complete the work by measuring the length of the wiring, as well as the number of each type of fixture, fixture, and other electrical work required. Calculate the total cost of materials using the rates provided in Step 4.
  6. Calculate labor costs by carefully estimating the amount of time it will take to complete the project. Multiply this figure by the hourly wage you pay for your electricians.
  7. Add in your tender the cost of any equipment rental you need to reach high areas. Include in your offer the cost of all the permits you need to get – this information is available from your state licensing agency. Permits can cost thousands of dollars.
  8. Add a percentage to your total amount of insurance, overhead and additional expenses, such as car payments from the company. In the future, you may be required to perform maintenance or repairs, so make a provision for this service in your total bid.
  9. Work on your total offer and add a percentage for profits. This figure can vary widely because it depends on the total supply and size of the site.

Tips and Warnings

  • Be fair when adding your profit; if your margin is greedy, the customer can lower your bid.

How to separate the value of land from the value of a construction

When purchasing a building, an allocation of the purchase price between land and construction must be made. This allowance will be used to determine the annual depreciation expense of the building for tax purposes and financial statements. Although there is no single formula that can be used every time an assignment is made, you must be able to defend the assignment between land and construction in case the assignment is questioned by a tax agency.


  1. Check the documents closing the purchase of the building and land. The full purchase price must be assigned between the land, construction and closing costs. Closing costs consist of the shares of securities, registration fees and attorney fees associated with the purchase. The closing costs will be capitalized, recorded as an asset in the balance sheet and amortized over the useful life of the property. The portion of the purchase price assigned to the land will not be depreciated. The portion of the purchase price allocated to the building will be depreciated over a useful life of 39 years.
  2. Assigns the purchase price between the land and the building based on the fair market values ​​of each component according to the date of purchase. This assignment is subject to professional judgment. A good approximation rule to use when assigning the purchase price between the land and the building is rule 20/80. The building is the largest asset, representing approximately 80% of the purchase price. The land is the smallest asset, representing approximately 20% of the purchase price.
  3. Determine an allocation ratio by reviewing property tax assessments. Property tax assessments will provide a total assessed value of property, land and building, as well as a value for the building itself and the land itself. Calculate the ratio of the land value to the total property valuation and the proportion of the building value to the total property valuation. For example, if the valuation of the property was US $ 500,000, the land was US $ 100,000 and the building was US $ 400,000, the land would be 20% of the appraised value and the building would be 80%.
  4. Test the ratio calculated to ensure good judgment. For example, if you bought an apartment building with a yard, the value attributable to the land would be greater than if you purchased a corporate building with parking lots and picnic area. Remember that all buildings are built above ground. Even in the case of a city building without recreational areas or parking, the building rests on land. There must be some portion of the purchase price assigned to the land.


How to make a disguise of a construction worker

How to make a disguise of a construction worker. Making your own Halloween costume is not only creative, it also saves you money. A construction worker’s suit is easy to do and works for both adults and children. And the best part is that you probably own most of the items you need to make the outfit. Here you will see how to make a construction worker disguise.


  1. Cut the sleeves of an old flannel shirt. The more worn the shirt, the better. If it’s cold, wear a long-sleeved shirt below the flannel shirt. If you show your arms, get yourself a rough temporary tattoo.
  2. Choose the most used jeans you have. The holes in the knees are a plus.
  3. Put on a tool belt filled with tape measure, hammer and other small hand tools. Make sure the belt is not too heavy to wear all night.
  4. Find a helmet to carry on your head. Costume shops or stores that sell toys for children should have helmets, especially during the Halloween season.
  5. Find a radio to talk to in your children’s toy box. Carry it in your hand or place it in the tool belt.
  6. Wear work boots or sneakers to complete the suit.
  7. Search a local savings store for items you do not have and you cannot borrow.

Tips & Warnings

  • Construction works are not the only ones that require the use of helmets. For example, architects and engineers often wear helmets at work sites. If you are having trouble finding one, ask your acquaintances. You may be surprised at the person who has one.
  • Use a little brown makeup on the face to create dirt stains.

Describe the work of a construction worker

Professional responsibilities

Responsibilities vary depending on the specific job, although a general set of responsibilities involve working under the direction of the construction manager, to ensure that project objectives are met. Often, workers help skilled workers complete a project and have to operate various manual and electrical tools, surveying and measurement. The Bureau of Labor Statistics projects high demand for construction workers between 2008 and 2018.

Required skills

Most manual worker positions are physically demanding and require good physical condition. Excellent interpersonal communication and teamwork skills are necessary, since completing a job will depend a lot on those skills. In addition, the ability to work in various locations is useful, as locations vary daily.

Education and work experience

A higher education diploma is the minimum academic requirement. An internship, which can be achieved by attending a technical / vocational school or consulting a local union, is the training necessary to gain the skills required as a manual construction worker. Training in safety measures and mastery of reading basic mathematical calculations may also be necessary depending on the trade. Although some trades can be learned without formal training, in general there are more employment options for those who have more training of this type. Some workers may have to get a state license, while others may not. This varies depending on the state and the trade.

Opinion about the work

The catalysts of the Bureau of Labor Statistics projection with respect to a 19% increase in work are an increase in population, a reduction in infrastructure, and buildings that are many years old. Those workers with the most experience and specialized skills will receive the greatest benefits from this growth. The only manual construction workers who will experience a downfall will be the helpers of roofers, painters, paper makers, plasterers and plasterers, as technological advances have a greater efficiency in these jobs.


What is a cold joint in concrete construction ?

A cold joint in common is an undesired discontinuity between concrete layers that occur when a concrete layer is allowed to cure before pouring the rest of the concrete into what is supposed to be a single solid mass. The discontinuity occurs between the layers due to the inability of the newly poured wet concrete to mix and bind properly to the hardened concrete. Such discontinuity is often the result of logistical issues such as a contractor’s work schedule or an unexpected material shortage.

Problems associated with cold joints range from relatively small to very serious. At the less serious end of the scale, a cold can commonly result in a visual cost estimation discontinuity that appears on the surface when the concrete has hardened. This type of aesthetic defect can easily be hidden instead of being repaired.

A more serious problem associated with a cold in common is the possibility that moisture penetrates the concrete section. If water settles in the joint, it can lead to decomposition of the concrete under certain environmental conditions. For example, as water expands when it freezes and then contracts when it melts, water trapped in a cold joint can cause cracking or erosion of the material. Moisture can also damage anything beyond the concrete pulp, if it is able to sip all the way through it.

In addition, a cold in common is an area of ​​reduced strength. Concrete is remarkable for its high strength during compression, but it is much weaker under tension. A cold in common is even weaker under tension, and it is sensitive to shear during discontinuity.

When possible, these joints should be avoided in concrete by filling the entire pour for a given section in a session. This allows the entire section to solidify in a continuous solid mass. If this is not possible, several measures can be taken to reduce the more serious problems.

Specialized sealant joint compound can be applied to the joint to make it waterproof and thus protect against potentially harmful moisture intrusion. A special surface preparation can be applied to the cured layer prior to application of a new layer of concrete. This will strengthen the ties between the two layers. Another way to increase the strength of the cold joint is to insert reinforcement bar or reinforcement iron into the first layer before pouring the next layer. This will better help tie them together and increase the tensile strength of the joint. It is also sometimes possible to locate the weakened joint in an area that is not critical to supporting a high load.

Passive housing with traditional construction

This is one of the most repeated questions among clients who come to the study asking for information about passive houses. Can a passive house with a traditional construction be built?


I understand by traditional construction the construction made with the materials of all the life, bricks, concrete, footings, and beams and forged and roof tiles. Then yes! You can make a passive dwelling with traditional materials.

An construction with walls with a lot of thermal inertia, using “traditional” strategies of energy harvesting, greenhouse lookouts, use of traditional style shading, the typical vine at the door of a house to provide shade in summer …etc. This, taken to current solutions is not only compatible, but highly recommended.

As for getting to the standard with traditional materials it is relatively easy if you put yourself in the hands of a good builder. He does not have to be an expert, but he does want to learn other construction techniques different from what he has done all his life.


In a house with a traditional construction, it is a very easy point to achieve, either by thickening the walls if it is a double sheet or by using insulation from the outside sate type on the outside of the brick or termoarcilla.

The main problem is to achieve continuity in the entire envelope of the insulation, but for that, in the key points such as the meeting between the facade and the floor can be placed special materials, like concrete with a very low thermal conductivity that does not interrupt the isolation.


What is clear and does not offer much discussion is that in a “traditional” construction the thermal inertia is very important.

A passive house with traditional materials, termoarcilla, concrete, etc., has much more inertia than a passive house with wood. And this point also helps when calculating the energy demand of the house.

Energy demand of a house with traditional construction: heating demand 13.3 kWh / m2 year. In this specific case, it is a house with a concrete structure in floors, a thermo-clay facade and a wooden roof, hence the value of mixed construction.

Price of construction of a contemporary house

The architects’ houses seduce by their clean lines and their capacity to maximize the space. With their architectural style, this type of work contrasts dramatically with the traditional houses that we can see in all the blocks. You too dream of building your own contemporary home and design?

An architect’s house for what price?

It is quite difficult to estimate the price of a contemporary house. Indeed, the budget will depend on several factors such as the price of the land, your architect’s fees, the area, the materials used or the cost of the labor. On average, count 2000 euros per m2 for the rooms of life of day and night such as the rooms, the bathroom, the living room / stay. The ancillary rooms such as the basement, the cellar, the garage have a price per m2 between 750 and 900 euros. The budget for the field varies from one region to another and, of course, from its surface. Approximately 1/3 of the final budget. The average price of a building land in France is 141 euros per m2. In Paris, the price is well above this average. The cost of building the house itself is estimated at 60% of the final price. This tariff includes the cost of materials and manpower.

Architect prices vary according to your degree of requirement?

If you want a house with extravagant shapes, then the price of construction is likely to flare up. By opting for modern technologies such as heat pumps, ventilation systems or a passive construction, for example, the cost of your home will also increase substantially.

Secondary costs during construction

There is the cost of building the building itself, but within your budget you will also have to rely on your architect’s fees or the margin that the promoter will take if you choose to go through such a professional. It is mandatory to go through an architect once the floor area of ​​your house reaches 170m2. An architect can take from 8 to 12% of the total cost of the house. The costs of an architect in the context of a contract with a builder are included in the service. Do not forget to budget the fees of notary whose fees account for about 7% of the price of the house. It is imperative to subscribe to a “damage insurance work”. You will find insurers who will offer you contracts whose price is between 3000 and 6000 dollars. Some developers include this insurance in their contract.

Home construction credit

Banks finance individual projects and grant a home construction credit when the project is carried out under the aegis of a CCMI (contract for the construction of a detached house). Apart from this, the rules are the same as for any real estate loan: the future debt ratio should not exceed one third of revenues, and repayments are generally fixed rate.

Which builder get a construction credit

Banks prefer to finance houses built via a CCMI. This type of contract is governed by strict regulations. The builder must have a completion guarantee, which assures the lender that the house will actually be completed, and the signatory contractor of the CCMI is an architect or a promoter, holding a civil liability insurance and a damage guarantee ten years old.

The bank therefore grants a construction loan for both the land and the building, and offers several options to adapt to the client’s repayment capacity.

The three formulas of construction credit

The borrower can choose between three home construction loan formulas, depending on his repayment capacity. First case: if his resources allow him to support both the rent of his current home (or the interest of his current home loan) and the interest of the construction loan, the bank releases the line of credit at one time. The borrower begins to amortize as soon as the first monthly payments.

If its resources do not allow it to support these new monthly payments in addition to its current charges, the bank offers a grace period: at each call for funds from the manufacturer, it releases the amount requested and notifies the borrower. Calls for funds are specified in the CCMI and cannot be derogated from.

At each unblocked amount, the borrower pays what is called a monthly interim interest, intended to compensate the bank for the sums placed at its disposal pending completion of the work. The building code imposes a holdback of 5% of the price of the project until the buyer has accepted the delivery; once the house is accepted and declared free, the bank releases the remaining 5%. From that moment, the landlord will pay monthly installments, and begin to write off his home construction loan.

The third option is to grant a full deferral of interim interest, in addition to the deferral of monthly payments. This solution is only used if the repayment capacity of the borrower is not sufficient.

Obtain a construction loan for a house

The construction credit for a home will only be granted if the homeowner’s future debt ratio does not exceed 33% of his net taxable income.

The duration of the repayments is adjusted to obtain the ideal scenario, so as not to place the borrower in a difficult financial position. Banks offer three rate families: variable, fixed or mixed.

In France, most of the fixed-rate construction loans are used, which allows the borrower to evaluate his budget over a long period. As repayments progress, so does their purchasing power, as their incomes rise while the monthly installments of their home construction loan remain the same.

How to calculate construction costs and budgets

Whether you are creating a competitive construction estimate for a bidding project, or simply trying to figure out the costs for the construction, remodeling, or repair work you want to do, follow the steps below to ensure that your construction costs and budgets are accurate and organized and complete.

Before you begin, review all plans and specifications and consider whether you will need the services of suppliers or contractors to complete the task. If that is the case, give them the information they need to quote their construction or remodeling work as soon as possible. Generally, waiting until the last minute causes the quote to be inaccurate.

In order to ensure that you have sufficient time to receive and review the prices of your suppliers and subcontractors, set a delivery date for quotes, which must be at least one day before the tender expiration date. Ask suppliers and subcontractors to make their proposals in writing and in detail. If time does not allow, take detailed notes of the bids that you give over the phone.

If possible, obtain at least three estimates. Construction costs and budgets for subcontractors typically cover a considerable scale of prices and if you have three estimates for each job, you can make a better informed decision about the number you should use in your construction budgets. As the quote process progresses, make sure your subcontractors receive any changes or revisions you make.

Once you have the estimates in your possession, prepare a comparison sheet and list the major items that subcontractors will include. Often, contractors who present estimates of the same job include different elements in their proposals. Use the comparison sheet as a guide to review and collate the quotes you receive. Add money to a contractor’s proposal for something it has excluded and others have included.

Make a summary of estimates for all your costs and tenders. Divide all costs into three basic categories:

Construction materials costs include all materials, labor, equipment, etc. needed to build a building (e.g. foundations, windows, roof).

Costs not related to construction or remodeling, also referred to as general conditions costs or general direct costs, include all materials, equipment and costs directly attributable to the performance of the work but which are not a real part of it (for example , temporary sanitation services, waste containers, supervision costs, the cost of electricity for the project).

General overheads include other costs necessary to maintain your business, which are not directly attributable to the project (for example, rent, telephone, office electricity). Identify and quantify these costs and then increase your hourly labor rate to cover them or add a budget line to your construction budget for each project you are calculating.

The costs of general (non-production) conditions may include 20 or 30 budget items, depending on the complexity of the project. Make a summary sheet and list the various costs and items you envisage. Many of these are directly related to the time taken to complete each task, so you should have an idea of ​​the duration of the project. For example, if you estimate that you will need two temporary health services a week, you will need to know how many weeks to use them to determine the total cost.

Once you have the costs of construction materials and the general conditions, determine the partial total. Your profits, overhead, and insurance costs are usually calculated as a percentage of that total. Combine these costs with your partial total and you get the full estimated cost.

Calculate the cost of work now

Before you start any quantity deduction of the drawings, read the specifications in writing. Often, the specifications manual includes special requirements or important differences and you must note them before continuing.

When you begin reviewing the blueprints to determine the amount of building materials and workers needed to do the work, these suggestions will help you stay organized:

First, check all the blueprints to get an idea of ​​what the job will require.

When making your detailed deductions, use felt-tip pens or colored pencils to mark the drawings. So you know when you have included something.

There are many ways to get the amounts you will need to prepare the estimates. Some contractors use software programs, many use special business forms and others have created their own forms. In any of these you use, note the number of the sheet of the plane in the article. This has four objectives:

If you first calculate the quantities of all materials, it is easier to go back to allocate labor costs if you know the detail you were considering. Floor-level installation of a 2 × 4 wood around a window opening requires much less work than one to 40 feet in the air under an eave.

The detailed description and the additional sheet make it easier for someone to review your work.

In the event of a revision of the plan, you can easily compare the new details with the previous ones and verify the impact of the change.

When the project is under construction, you will be able to more accurately compare the actual costs of materials and fieldwork. If in your estimate the work appears in a lump sum, it will be impossible to determine where it was calculated in less and where in more.

When calculating quantities, be sure to know the scale used in the drawings and details. Check the scale with other flat sheets; sometimes the architect scores an incorrect scale on the plans. If you think you are viewing 1/4 inch drawings and are actually 3/16 inch, your quantities will be wrong and this will significantly influence your labor and material costs.

Once you have calculated the amounts of building materials, add an appropriate amount for the waste material. Next, determine the cost of materials and labor to install them, as well as other related equipment costs.

Contact your supplier to find out the building materials you need and if they do not give you a price for the total amount, find out the prices per unit and determine the total costs of materials. For example, you need 434 feet of 2 × 4 pressure treated wood. Your vendor sells that material in 16-foot lengths, at $ 15 each. Divide 434 linear feet between 16 feet and round the figure to the next complete piece. In this case, you would need 28 2 × 4 lumber, 16 feet long, for a total of $ 420. Do not forget things such as screws, glue, sales taxes, delivery service charges and other incidental costs. Once the material costs have been calculated, proceed to calculate the labor costs.

Calculating labor costs requires experience. Concentrate first on the larger budget items, since an error in them can lead to a large difference in total estimated costs. Depending on the amount of materials, try to determine the rate of production. For example, your project has a wood base of 1,250 linear feet. Calculate that your carpenter can measure, cut and install 20 feet of base per hour. Divide 1,250 feet out of 20 to determine you will need 63 hours. Remember that someone will download the material and distribute it to the various sections of the project. This also requires time, so you must add this extra time to the hours you calculated to install the base.

Multiply the hours per hour rate. Hourly rates vary widely but the basic points are the gross hourly wage, plus benefits, and state and local taxes. Many contractors add a value to the hourly rate to cover a portion of their overhead. Once you have the total number of hours for each budget line, add up the total hours and multiply them to get the labor costs.

The next thing you should consider for all construction budgets is the costs of construction equipment. Do you need to buy or rent a scaffold or perhaps a motorized raised basket? Once again, time is a key factor. Determine how much time the equipment will need to calculate the cost correctly.

Once materials, labor, and equipment costs have been completed, get the total cost for that section of the estimate. The goal is to include everything in a format that you can follow later, or use in future estimates for comparison purposes.

Finally, have your mathematical operations reviewed on the worksheet and material sheets, and prepare your tender.

What is the asphalt primer oil?

Many roads and access roads consist of an asphalt surface instead of concrete. Asphalt offers many long-term benefits, including force to support many vehicles through it. However, asphalt impregnated oil may deteriorate the road surface or road. Oil asphalt primers provide control process oil for the preservation of a substrate of asphalt.

Asphalt Characteristics

Asphalt is a mixture of gravel, sand, stone and asphalt cement. Apart from its durability, it provides a final soft asphalt surface. The smooth surface helps conserve vehicle fuel and less harmful emissions into the atmosphere emanating. Although asphalt provides a smooth surface, tire grip easily the way for a safer travel. Flanking walls noise concrete roads are not necessary with asphalt roads because the asphalt is naturally quiet vehicle moves through it.

Oil purpose primer

Asphalt Primer not removes oil or oil absorbing asphalt but sealed inside the stained area. Primers consist of a basic oil emulsion latex concentrate. Typically, oil asphalt primer is applied to oil stains before sealing the road or driveway sealant pavement. Combine oil primer with a final sealant hidden oil stain and prevents them from resurfacing with asphalt sealing.

Oil primer application

The asphalt surface must be thoroughly cleaned before application of oil primer. Typically, a professional repair company specialized asphalt used torches to burn oil stains. Oil stains heating removes any remaining residue before applying the primer oil. After the stain is cool, workers apply primer oil to the individual spots with a gun, roller or brush. The surface can be covered with asphalt pavement sealant, effectively sealing and hide the stains of oil once the oil primer is completely dry.

Profit oil primer

Receiving asphalt surfaces without priming sealant applications that will eventually have oil stains oil stains resurface. As resurgent oil, cracks and damage to the asphalt surface, generating a weak substrate. Asphalt continues to weaken as the oil spreads over the surface, aggravated by weight and vehicle movement. Oil primers preserve the composition of asphalt, avoiding weakens and contributes to longevity.


Asphalt primer oil works well in isolated oil stains. Asphalt surface oil extensively damaged still requires removing asphalt patches and resurfacing. Consult a business professional individual assessment asphalt road repair or driveway. Each is individually dyed surface oil, which requires trained to properly repair an appointment eye.